Schengen visas apply to all Schengen countries, unless otherwise stated.  Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania also accept Schengen visas (even if they are limited to one country) and visas issued by the other for stays of up to 90 days over a 180-day period (with the exception of Turkish and Azerbaijani nationals travelling to Cyprus).     However, visas issued by Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus or Romania are not valid for travel within the Schengen area.  Some third-country nationals may stay in the Schengen area for more than 90 days without having to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require nationals of European micro-states to apply for an extended residence visa.  Nationals of countries (such as Australia, Canada, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and the United States) who had visa-free agreements with Schengen states prior to the implementation of the Schengen Agreement may stay up to 90 days without a long-stay visa in each of these Schengen states (see “Rules applicable to Schedule II nationals”). These individuals can apply for visas with regular appointment procedures at a U.S. embassy or consulate. For those who require a visa to travel urgently to the United States, U.S. embassies and consulates are ready to process applications on an expedited basis. At the end of the ETIAS validity period, third-country nationals may continue to apply for an extended stay in a country with a bilateral visa waiver agreement. As the ETIAS expires after 90 days, foreigners must remain in the country beyond that border. Currently, there are 60 nationals who must apply for an exemption from the ETIAS visa requirement, although it is possible to add other countries to the list in the future.
It is essential to understand that after the implementation of ETIAS from the end of 2022, countries currently visa-free will retain this status, the only difference being that a valid ETIAS must be retained with their passports. Under the Schengen Visa Code, Member States can issue LTV visas when a consulate considers it justified to exceed the three-month limit within six months, when a Member State considers it necessary, due to urgent circumstances, to deviate from the entry requirements under the Schengen border code, to overcome objections from other Member States or , in case of emergency, to overcome the objections of other Member States.  Persons of any nationality who are family members of EU internal market nationals and who have a residence card attesting to their status are exempt from the visa requirement when they wish to accompany or join their family in the internal market of the European Union upon entry into the EU internal market.  Even if a student who meets all of the above requirements is exempt from entering the Schengen area, in Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania, he must nevertheless have a valid travel document. However, it is exempt from carrying a valid travel document if: countries applying for EU membership are required to adopt EU visa policy at least three months before they are formally joining the EU.  Schengen countries grant visa-free travel to nationals of all EU candidates and candidates, with the exception of Turkey.  The accession countries, Albania, Montenegro, northern Macedonia and Serbia have adopted a visa policy similar to that of the Schengen area, with some notable exceptions for countries that have recently been registered in Schedule II and additional nationalities not included in Schengen Annex II, while Turkey continues to require visas from its nationals. Bosnia and Herzegovina, as a candidate country for accession, has also largely aligned its visa policy with the Schengen area.